In this article we will dive into the definition of biological wastewater treatment and it´s benefits. In a sewage plant the method used is a process that seems simple on the surface but ends up being a very complex one.
This place uses natural processes to help with the decomposition of organic substances, but there is also a combination between biology and biochemistry.
Biological treatments rely on bacteria or other small organisms to be able to break down organic wastes using normal cellular processes. Wastewater typically contains a lot of this organic matter, because of the garbage, partially digested foods and other types of waste.
The goal of this type of treatment is to create a system in which the matter that is about to be decomposed is easy to be discarded. Scientists have been able to achieve the optimal removal of organic substances from wastewater.
An Effective and Economical Treatment
Biological treatment, also known as MBR technology, is used almost all over the world because it’s effective and more economical when compared to other mechanical or chemical processes.
Normally this is considered a secondary treatment process, and as it has been explained before, it is used to remove any material remaining after primary treatment. In the primary water treatment process, sediments or substances such as oil are removed from the wastewater.
They can usually be divided into anaerobic and aerobic processes. “Aerobic” refers to a process in which oxygen is present, while “anaerobic” describes a process with no oxygen.
Aerobic Wastewater Treatment
This includes processes such as activated sludge process, oxidation ditches, trickling filters, lagoon-based treatments, and aerobic digestion. Diffused aeration systems when used the goal is to maximize oxygen transfer and minimize odors as the wastewater is treated. Aeration provides oxygen to the helpful bacteria and other organisms as they decompose organic substances in the wastewater.
One example of this method is the activated sludge process. This is a proven biological wastewater treatment widely used for the secondary treatment of both domestic and industrial wastewater. It is optimal to treat waste streams high in organic or biodegradable content and is often used to treat municipal sewage, wastewater generated by pulp and paper mills or food-related industries such as meat processing. This is similar to hollow fiber membrane system.
There is always technology evolving with this type of method like the membrane aerated biofilm reactor (MABR), which is able to use 90% less energy for aeration.
In comparison, the anaerobic treatment uses bacteria to help organic material deteriorate in an oxygen-free environment. Some examples are either lagoons or septic tanks that normally use this type of process. The best-known anaerobic treatment is anaerobic digestion, which is used for treating food and beverage manufacturing effluents, as well as municipal wastewater, chemical effluent, and agricultural waste.
Whatever the option is used, both are well in completing a job which is to filtrate biological sewage water to be reused.